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Primeros años de Henry Tudor

Primeros años de Henry Tudor


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Henry Tudor, el segundo hijo de Edmund Tudor, conde de Richmond y Margaret Beaufort, nació en el castillo de Pembroke el 28 de enero de 1457. Margaret era bisnieta de John of Gaunt. (1)

Como ha señalado Alison Weir: "Margaret Beaufort, era su (Henry Tudor) único vínculo de sangre con los Plantagents, y ella misma descendía de los bastardos nacidos de John of Gaunt, duque de Lancaster, cuarto hijo de Eduardo III, y su amante Katherine Swynford. Estos niños, todos de apellido Beaufort, fueron legitimados por el estatuto de Ricardo II en 1397, después de que Gaunt se casara con su madre; sin embargo, diez años después, Enrique IV, confirmando esto, agregó un jinete al estatuto que prohibía el Beauforts y sus herederos nunca hereden la corona ". (2)

El padre de Henry llevaba casi tres meses muerto cuando nació. Henry Tudor pronto se separó de su madre cuando Eduardo IV decidió que quería que viviera con Lord William Herbert, su principal partidario en Gales. Se crió en Raglan Castle, con la intención de casarlo con su hija mayor. Estos planes llegaron a su fin cuando Herbert fue ejecutado después de la batalla de Edgecote Moor el 26 de julio de 1469. (3)

Henry ahora se fue a vivir con su tío, Jasper Tudor, el conde de Pembroke restaurado. En la batalla de Tewkesbury el 4 de mayo de 1471, Margarita de Anjou fue capturada y su hijo de trece años, Eduardo de Westminster, fue asesinado. Edward IV envió a Roger Vaughan para arrestar a Henry y Jasper. Vaughan fue capturado y ejecutado y los dos hombres escaparon a Tenby y tomaron un barco, rumbo a Francia pero aterrizando en Bretaña a finales de mes después de un viaje tormentoso. Francisco II, duque de Bretaña, les ofreció asilo, pero bajo la presión diplomática de Eduardo, esto se convirtió en arresto domiciliario en una sucesión de castillos y palacios. (4)


Historia de Shakespeare

En el primer folio, las obras de William Shakespeare se agruparon en tres categorías: comedias, historias y tragedias. Las historias, junto con las de los dramaturgos contemporáneos del Renacimiento, ayudan a definir el género de las obras históricas. [1] Las historias de Shakespeare son biografías de reyes ingleses de los cuatro siglos anteriores e incluyen las independientes Rey juan, Eduardo III y Enrique VIII así como una secuencia continua de ocho obras. Estos últimos se consideran compuestos en dos ciclos. La llamada primera tetralogía, aparentemente escrita a principios de la década de 1590, cubre la saga Wars of the Roses e incluye Enrique VI, Partes I, II &erio III y Ricardo III. La segunda tetralogía, terminada en 1599 e incluyendo Ricardo II, Enrique IV, Partes I &erio II y Enrique V, con frecuencia se llama el Henriad después de su protagonista, el príncipe Hal, el futuro Henry V.

Las clasificaciones del folio no están exentas de problemas. Además de proponer otras categorías como romances y obras de teatro problemáticas, muchos estudios modernos tratan las historias junto con las tragedias que presentan personajes históricos. Éstos incluyen Macbeth, ambientada a mediados del siglo XI durante los reinados de Duncan I de Escocia y Eduardo el Confesor y el legendario Rey Lear y también la romana juega Coriolano, Julio César, y Antonio y Cleopatra.


Henry Tudor recluta soldados para su enfrentamiento con el rey Ricardo III

En la batalla de Tewkesbury el 4 de mayo de 1471, los yorkistas obtuvieron una gran victoria contra los lancasterianos. Eduardo, Príncipe de Gales, hijo de Enrique VI y Margarita de Anjou murió durante la batalla y la Reina Margarita fue capturada. Eduardo IV volvió a ser rey y el 21 de mayo Enrique VI murió en la Torre de Londres, probablemente por orden del rey Eduardo. Jasper Tudor había estado haciendo su camino para reunirse con las fuerzas de Lancaster, pero por alguna razón, no lo logró y se perdió la batalla. Sabía que sería un objetivo del rey Eduardo y su vida estaba en peligro. Así que se preparó para huir del país.

Otra consecuencia de la batalla fue la deserción de la causa de Lancaster por Margaret Beaufort y su esposo Thomas Lord Stanley (Margaret se casó con él en 1472 después de que su esposo Henry Stafford muriera en octubre de 1471). El hijo de catorce años de Margaret, Henry Tudor, estaba con su tío Jasper. Debido a que su madre y su esposo habían elegido bando, decidió unirse a su tío en el exilio. Henry no vería a su madre durante los siguientes catorce años.

Henry y Jasper aterrizaron en Bretaña y fueron los invitados / prisioneros del duque Francisco II. Francisco usó a los dos hombres como un peón diplomático en las negociaciones con el rey Eduardo en un esfuerzo por mantener su independencia de Francia. Los dos hombres pasaron tiempo en varios castillos de Bretaña, a veces juntos y a veces separados. En varios momentos, Henry estuvo en peligro de ser enviado de regreso a Inglaterra, pero logró evitar la captura. Durante el reinado de Eduardo IV, Margaret Beaufort presionó al rey para que permitiera que su hijo regresara y reclamara su condado de Richmond. En abril de 1483, tuvo la aprobación del rey Eduardo para el regreso de Enrique a Inglaterra, pero luego Eduardo murió inesperadamente.

El hermano de Eduardo, Ricardo, duque de Gloucester, usurpó el trono del hijo de Eduardo, el rey Eduardo V. A partir de ese momento hubo complots y rebeliones contra su gobierno. En este punto, Henry Tudor no era considerado un competidor serio por el trono. Pero cuando el rey Eduardo V y su hermano Ricardo Duque de York desaparecieron de la Torre de Londres en algún momento del otoño de 1483, la situación en Inglaterra cambió drásticamente. El duque de Buckingham, el aliado más cercano de Ricardo III, desertó de su causa y planeó una rebelión con otros, incluido Henry Tudor. Pero la rebelión no tuvo éxito y Henry nunca llegó a Inglaterra debido al mal tiempo en el mar.

En Navidad, en la catedral de Rennes en Bretaña, Henry Tudor juró casarse con la hija mayor de Eduardo IV, Isabel de York, para unir finalmente las casas de Lancaster y York. Este juramento dejó en claro su intención de quitarle el trono a Ricardo III y muchos hombres comenzaron a unirse a la causa de Enrique. Ricardo negoció un acuerdo con el ducado de Bretaña por el cual Enrique sería enviado de regreso a Inglaterra y la ejecución más segura en el invierno de 1484. Enrique pudo escapar audazmente a la corte del rey francés Carlos VIII. Charles y su regente en funciones, su hermana Anne de Beaujeu, apoyaron activamente el intento de Enrique de tomar el trono de Inglaterra. Comenzó la preparación, el reclutamiento y la recaudación de fondos.

Durante estos meses tensos, Henry escribió numerosas cartas en un esfuerzo por atraer a los hombres a su causa. Muchas de estas cartas fueron destruidas pero hay una copia de una de ellas que ha sobrevivido. No tiene fecha y no tiene destinatario específico. Así es como se lee:

“Muy buenos amigos fieles, venerables y honorables, los saludo bien. Habiendo comprendido su buena conducta y su súplica de hacerme avanzar hacia la promoción de mi legítimo reclamo, la herencia debida y directa de esa corona y la justa privación de ese homicidio y tirano antinatural que ahora injustamente ejerce dominio sobre usted, le doy a Entiende que ningún corazón cristiano puede estar más lleno de gozo y alegría que el corazón de mí, tu pobre amigo exiliado, que, en el instante de tu publicidad segura, sabrá qué poder prepararás y qué capitanes y líderes llegarás a conducir, prepárate para atravesar el mar con tanta fuerza como me están preparando mis amigos. Y si tengo la velocidad y el éxito que deseo, de acuerdo con tu deseo, estaré siempre muy ansioso de recordar y de corresponder plenamente a esta tu gran y conmovedora bondad amorosa en mi justa disputa. Dado bajo nuestro sello H
Te ruego que le des crédito al mensajero de lo que te impartirá ".

A principios de diciembre, Richard respondió a las súplicas de Henry con una proclamación contra Henry, Jasper y muchos de los rebeldes más importantes. También comenzó a reclutar hombres y a poner a todo el país en alerta ante la inminente invasión. Henry tenía todo en su lugar y sus barcos zarparon de Honfleur el 1 de agosto de 1485, llegando a Milford Haven en Gales el 8 de agosto. Luego comenzó a moverse hacia el noreste para enfrentar a Richard en la batalla, reclutando y dando la bienvenida a los hombres a su causa mientras marchaba. .

La marcha de Henry Tudor (más tarde Henry VII) y Rhys ap Thomas a través de Gales, hasta el campo Bosworth (Imagen de Llywelyn2000 de Wikimedia Commons)

Henry pidió a los hombres de Gales que acudieran en su ayuda, afirmando que su intención no era solo restaurar Inglaterra a su estado antiguo, sino también el principado de Gales. Su objetivo era restablecer los antiguos derechos de Gales como eran antes de la rebelión de Owen Glendower en 1400. Sobrevive una copia de la carta de Henry a John ap Maredudd y dice:

“Muy fiel y amado, te saludamos bien. Y donde sea para que con la ayuda de Dios Todopoderoso, la ayuda de nuestros amorosos amigos y verdaderos súbditos, y la gran confianza que tenemos en los nobles y los comunes de este nuestro principado de Gales, seamos ingresados ​​en el mismo, con el propósito de con la ayuda anterior ensayada con toda la prisa posible para descender a nuestro reino de Inglaterra, no sólo para la apropiación [recuperación] de la corona para nosotros de derecho perteneciente, sino también para la opresión de ese odioso tirano Ricardo difunto duque de Gloucester, usurpador de nuestro dicho derecho, y además para reducir también nuestro dicho reino de Inglaterra a su antiguo estado, honor y prosperidad, como este nuestro dicho principado de Gales, y la gente del mismo a sus primeras libertades [originales], entregando el de tales miserables servidumbres que han estado lamentablemente desde hace mucho tiempo. Le deseamos y le rogamos, y por su lealtad, le encomendamos y le ordenemos que, inmediatamente después de ver esto, con todo el poder que pueda hacer defendible para el En la guerra, os dirigís hacia nosotros sin demorarte en el camino, hasta el momento en que estés con nosotros donde sea que estemos en nuestra ayuda para el efecto antes ensayado, en el que harás que con el tiempo lleguemos a ser tu bien singular. Señor, y que no falles en esto, ya que evitarás nuestro doloroso disgusto y responderás a tu propio riesgo. Dado bajo nuestro sello ...... "

Se desconoce si John ap Maredudd respondió a la llamada de Henry, pero muchos otros galeses sí lo hicieron. La marcha de Henry, en gran parte sin obstáculos, duró hasta el 20 de agosto, cuando su ejército se encontraba cerca de las tropas de Richard cerca de Bosworth Field. La batalla comenzó en algún momento del 22 de agosto. Aunque el ejército de Henry fue superado en número por el de Richard, la batalla fue una victoria para él cuando Richard fue asesinado mientras intentaba valientemente alcanzar a Henry y matarlo. Enrique Tudor era ahora el rey Enrique VII. Se casó con la hija mayor del rey Eduardo IV, Isabel, uniendo las casas de Lancaster y York y comenzó una nueva dinastía de reyes ingleses que duraría hasta la muerte de la reina Isabel I en 1603. Muchos de los hombres que respondieron a la llamada de Enrique fueron recompensados ​​con creces por el nuevo Rey.


HARRY DE INGLATERRA Parte I

La gracia del rey no es más que un hombre débil y enfermizo, no es probable que sea un hombre de larga vida. No hace mucho que estaba enfermo y yacía en su mansión en Wanstead. En ese momento, varios grandes personajes discutieron entre ellos la forma de las cosas que podrían suceder si su gracia dejara esta vida. Algunos de ellos hablaron de mi señor de Buckingham, diciendo que era un hombre noble y que sería un gobernante real. Otros hablaron de Edmund de la Pole. Pero ninguno habló del Príncipe de Gales.

En algún momento de 1504 o 1505, un grupo de sirvientes reales, en la relativa seguridad del puerto continental de Calais en Inglaterra, especuló sobre el futuro de su país. Tales chismes políticos reflejaban dos suposiciones: el régimen actual de Enrique VII era muy impopular y sería reemplazado por el de cualquier rival de la casa de Tudor que pudiera tener un número suficiente de seguidores entre los principales magnates del reino. El hecho de que la nueva dinastía evitara rebeliones y golpes de estado y sobreviviera, durante un siglo más, a pesar de depender para esa supervivencia de un menor real y dos mujeres reales, dice mucho de la tenacidad política y la perspicacia de la casa reinante más grande de Inglaterra. También refleja la preocupación de la mayoría de los sujetos de la corona por la estabilidad y la continuidad. Independientemente de lo que hayan pensado los nobles intrigantes en los últimos años del reinado de Enrique VII, la gente en general no tenía ganas de volver a la carnicería y dislocación de las Guerras de las Rosas.

El niño que se convertiría en Enrique VIII sería el monarca más absoluto que jamás haya experimentado Inglaterra y presidiría cambios fundamentales y de gran alcance en la vida cultural, política y económica de la nación. Es tentador atribuir todo esto a su fuerza de carácter, pero la verdad es más compleja. Tiene que ver con el impacto de las ideas revolucionarias sobre las que el rey no tenía control y con una sucesión de talentosos servidores reales capaces no solo de darle a Enrique lo que él quería, sino lo que ellos querían que él quisiera. También refleja la pasividad de un pueblo que no está dispuesto a participar en una rebelión importante hasta que se lo empuja más allá de la resistencia. Sin embargo, a principios del siglo XVI, aquellos supuestamente informados podían descartar la posibilidad de que el joven Harry tuviera éxito o mantuviera su posesión de la corona. Para comenzar a comprender el reinado de Enrique VIII, nosotros también debemos borrar de nuestras mentes lo que sabemos de la Inglaterra del Renacimiento y la Reforma, las convoluciones matrimoniales de la vida del rey, los fastuosos rituales reales, la transferencia de la riqueza y el poder eclesiásticos a la corona. y el surgimiento de una nueva clase de caballeros y hombres de negocios ricos en tierras, que fueron socios en el cambio pero que desarrollaron constantemente una conciencia de sus propios intereses corporativos. Debemos someternos al condicionamiento mental de los contemporáneos de Henry. Solo podían predecir el futuro en términos del pasado.

En los albores del siglo XVI había muy buenas razones para descartar el acceso al trono del único hijo superviviente de Enrique VII, nacido en 1491. Dos veces durante los 100 años anteriores la corona había pasado a un menor y en ambas ocasiones los resultados habían ha sido desastroso. Enrique V había sido sucedido por Enrique VI, un niño de nueve meses que se convirtió en peón de facciones aristocráticas y fue asesinado, después de un reinado tan caótico como largo, en 1471. Doce años más tarde, el usurpador Eduardo IV murió. y legó su reino al príncipe Eduardo, de doce años. El nuevo rey y su hermano fueron destituidos por su tío, Ricardo de Gloucester, quien no solo fue impulsado por su propia ambición, sino por la convicción de que Inglaterra nunca podría estar segura bajo el gobierno de un menor. Mientras los impulsores y agitadores de la Inglaterra gótica esperaban la muerte de Enrique VII, parecía haber muchas razones para suponer que el futuro estaría en sus propias manos intrigantes y en un líder militar eficaz de su propia elección. El rey defraudó sus esperanzas. Su último servicio a Inglaterra fue su vida a duras penas hasta que el joven Harry de Gales estuvo a la vista de su decimoctavo cumpleaños. La corona pasó sin desafío al legítimo heredero en medio de manifestaciones de salvaje regocijo. La dinastía estaba segura, por el momento.

Nuestra historia, sin embargo, debe comenzar más atrás en el tiempo. Unos meses antes de que Colón viera por primera vez las Américas y los moros supervivientes su última visión de España antes de ser expulsado por Fernando e Isabel, el pequeño Enrique Tudor entró en el mundo el 28 de junio de 1491 en el palacio de Greenwich, río abajo del fétido los aires veraniegos de la capital adonde Isabel de York había acudido con sus damas para su descanso. El proceso de nacimiento siempre fue peligroso, pero la reina era robusta y ya había tenido un niño varón (Arthur, 1486) y una niña (Margaret, 1489). Sin embargo, fue un alivio para el rey saber que tenía otro hijo sano, un heredero "libre". La familia real siguió creciendo. Durante los años siguientes, Henry tuvo tres hermanos menores, aunque solo uno, Mary (1496), sobrevivió a la infancia. Según los estándares de la época, era una prole de buen tamaño, particularmente valiosa para el rey Enrique porque le permitía asegurar su posición negociando una serie de matrimonios con otras casas reales. La infancia fue corta en esos días. Mucho antes de la pubertad, los jóvenes príncipes y princesas se habían acostumbrado a la idea de que estaban destinados a la separación y dispersión en varias cortes europeas.

Lo poco que podemos saber sobre la crianza de los niños reales sugiere que la figura dominante en su mundo cerrado era su abuela. Lady Margaret Beaufort fue una mujer formidable en todos los sentidos. Intrigante, ambiciosa y decidida, la madre del rey había sido uno de los principales agentes en la adquisición del trono por Enrique VII. Desde muy pequeña se vio envuelta en el siniestro juego de las serpientes dinásticas y las escaleras. Como descendía de Eduardo III, Enrique VI la casó con su medio hermano, Edmund Tudor, con la única intención de producir más partidarios de la causa de Lancaster. Edward no perdió tiempo en dejar embarazada a su joven esposa por un acto que debe haber estado muy cerca de una violación. Dejó a Margaret incapaz de tener más hijos, pero sí tuvo un hijo (el futuro Enrique VII) y los dos siempre estarían muy unidos. El vínculo era aún más fuerte porque Henry nunca conoció a su padre, quien murió de peste antes de que él naciera. En 1471, cuando Enrique tenía trece años, el neoyorquino Eduardo IV confirmó su dominio del trono asesinando a Enrique VI. El joven Tudor se convirtió ahora en un rival teórico y Margaret organizó su vuelo apresurado a través del Canal. Mientras Henry pasó los siguientes catorce años en asilo en Bretaña, su madre negoció, conspiró y tramó para ganar el favor real que le permitiría regresar. Sin embargo, la posibilidad de hacer una oferta por la corona nunca estuvo lejos de sus pensamientos y cuando la usurpación de Ricardo III provocó una reacción violenta entre muchos miembros de la nobleza, aprovechó la oportunidad para colocar a su hijo al frente de una rebelión. Su intriga era tan audaz como enérgica. Sus agentes corrían en secreto de un lado a otro entre los magnates Yorkistas descontentos, prometiendo no una adquisición de Lancaster, sino la unión de las casas rivales por el matrimonio de su hijo con la hija de Eduardo IV, Elizabeth. Mientras tanto, otros conspiradores negociaron con los gobernantes de Francia y Bretaña el suministro de hombres y armas. El resultado de la rebelión no fue de ninguna manera una conclusión inevitable y hubo varios comienzos en falso de la campaña antes de que Henry Tudor aterrizara a salvo en Milford Haven en agosto de 1485. Su eventual victoria en Bosworth tuvo mucho que ver con las deserciones de la realeza. rangos como con los logros del ejército mestizo de Henry.

Era inevitable que Margaret Beaufort ejerciera una influencia considerable en el nuevo régimen. Henry se basó en gran medida en los consejos de su madre y ella disfrutó de mayor prominencia que la nueva esposa de Henry, Isabel de York. Asumió el escudo de armas real, firmó los documentos "Margaret R." y apareció en los rituales de la corte junto al rey. Mantuvo una casa grande, magníficamente decorada, no menos impresionante que la de su hijo. Llevaba suntuosas joyas y vestidos hermosamente confeccionados, aunque casi siempre eran de corte sencillo y de un negro casto. El retrato de ella en Christ's College, uno de los dos centros de aprendizaje que fundó en Cambridge, revela a una mujer austera con hábito de monja, leyendo un libro devocional.

Aquí no hay ninguna contradicción. Margaret logró combinar la pompa y el poder mundanos con una devoción religiosa genuina. Aunque nunca entró en un convento, se separó de su tercer marido para organizar su vida diaria en torno a un ritual de oración y adoración. Ella dotó antiguas casas religiosas, pero estaba interesada en los desarrollos modernos en teología y arte religioso. Y tecnología: fue la principal patrona de la nueva y revolucionaria industria de la impresión. Encargó varias obras devocionales a las imprentas de William Caxton y Wynkyn de Worde y compró copias como obsequios para amigos y protegidos.

El más devoto Rey David. . .Enseñó al pueblo de Israel a alabar a Dios con todo su corazón y con voces llenas de melodía para bendecirlo y alabarlo todos los días. Si se utilizó tanta devoción, entonces. . .Qué reverencia y devoción deberíamos conservar ahora yo y todo el pueblo cristiano durante la ministración de la Santa Cena.

Estas palabras del clásico devocional de principios del siglo XV, La imitación de Cristo de Thomas à Kempis, fueron traducidas personalmente por Margaret para la primera edición en inglés y no sorprende saber que siguió el consejo del escritor. El personal de su capilla rivalizaba con el del rey en cuanto a números y musicalidad y fue un centro importante para el desarrollo de la polifonía inglesa. Como viuda de unos cincuenta años que había experimentado, y sobrevivido, muchos de los cambios y oportunidades de una época problemática, Margaret era una anciana imponente que ejercía una inmensa autoridad política y moral. Según el embajador español, ella dominaba a su nuera y si Isabel se sintió abrumada por la mujer mayor, los jóvenes príncipes y princesas debieron de estarlo aún más. Se criaron en mansiones reales al sur del Támesis (Eltham, Greenwich y Richmond) y Margaret podía visitarlos fácilmente desde su residencia en Woking o su mansión en la ciudad ribereña de Coldharbour, cerca del Puente de Londres. La abuela que encontraron en esos primeros años era una estricta disciplinaria con ideas firmes sobre todo y todos, especialmente la educación y la religión.

El confesor de la reina madre y consejero más cercano en temas académicos y espirituales fue John Fisher, rector de la Universidad de Cambridge y uno de los pensadores más avanzados de la época. Pertenecía a ese círculo de entendidos internacionales a quienes los tradicionalistas despreciaban con desdén como defensores de moda del `` Nuevo aprendizaje '' porque habían absorbido la pasión renacentista por la erudición clásica y los textos originales griegos y hebreos de la Biblia en lugar de contentarse con la consagrada regurgitación. de interpretaciones patrísticas aceptadas. Margaret, naturalmente, se dirigió a Fisher cuando se trataba de seleccionar a los hombres que deberían ser empleados como tutores de los niños reales. Cada uno de los hermanos fue designado como su propio personal doméstico y la vanguardia académica se destacó entre los nombrados. El hombre que fue nombrado tutor del príncipe Enrique alrededor de 1496 fue el notable poeta y erudito John Skelton. Recientemente había sido nombrado poeta laureado en Cambridge y probablemente pertenecía al círculo de Fisher. Skelton estaba en la treintena y, si bien no era exactamente un "joven enojado", sin duda era muy intenso. Su seriedad religiosa y moral se manifestó en su devoción personal (tomó las órdenes sagradas en 1498), en libros pedagógicos como el Boke How Men Shulde Fle Synne y también en verso satírico. En 1499 dirigió su pluma a invectivas contra la hipocresía de la casa real en La Bouge of Court, en la que describió un sueño alegórico en el que ciertos personajes que representaban a cortesanos establecidos se ofrecían a guiarlo en el funcionamiento de la corte:

La primera fue Duplicidad, llena de halagos,

Con fábulas falsas, ese pozo podría fingir un cuento.

La segunda fue la sospecha de que ese diario

Juzgó mal a cada hombre, con rostro pálido y mortal,

Y Engañador, ese pozo podría provocar una pelea,

Con otros cuatro de su afinidad:

Desdén, Alboroto, Disimulación, Sutileza.

Parece que Skelton estaba decidido a hacer que su joven encargado fuera consciente de la irrealidad y los falsos valores del pequeño mundo encerrado en el que estaba creciendo. El tutor ciertamente se tomó su trabajo muy en serio. Conocemos varios tratados escritos por él sobre temas, como la gramática y la teoría del gobierno, que habrían sido útiles para la educación de un príncipe.

La reina, la reina madre y el rey estaban todos preocupados por ver a la próxima generación de Tudor educada no solo por los mejores intelectos de la época, sino también por hombres que estaban a la vanguardia de la investigación intelectual. Quizás fue una preocupación inspirada por su deseo de establecer a la familia como una dinastía dinámica, mirando hacia el futuro, no hacia el pasado. Enrique VII había pasado la mayor parte de sus años de formación en el continente entre hombres y mujeres cultos influenciados por los aires renacentistas que soplaban a través de los Alpes. Sabía muy bien que Inglaterra era considerada culturalmente atrasada y se aseguró de traer a su reino a los mejores artistas y artesanos que pudieran ser inducidos a trabajar en la tierra de las nieblas y los humores húmedos. Entre los miembros del séquito del príncipe Enrique se encontraba William Blount, el barón Mountjoy, un joven erudito que era amigo de Fisher y también de un abogado de Londres que estaba empezando a crearse un nombre llamado Thomas More. Blount hizo una peregrinación intelectual a París para sentarse a los pies del decano de las vanguardias, el gran erudito holandés Desiderius Erasmus, y los dos se hicieron amigos íntimos. Cuando Erasmo llegó a visitar a su alumno en 1499, Mountjoy dispuso que el gran erudito fuera recibido por los niños reales. Así fue como Erasmus y More hicieron el breve viaje desde la casa de Mountjoy hasta el palacio de Eltham. El relato de la visita de Erasmo, escrito muchos años después, nos da la única imagen verbal que tenemos de Enrique VIII cuando era niño. Arturo no estaba presente, porque ya había dejado la guardería para comenzar su entrenamiento serio como futuro rey. Henry, de ocho años, asumió el papel de anfitrión, saludando a los visitantes e involucrándolos en una conversación segura de sí mismos. Amablemente recibió un tributo latino que More había compuesto cuidadosamente para la ocasión y preguntó si la celebridad internacional visitante podría tener una oferta similar para él. Esto sorprendió a Erasmo, porque no había pensado en equiparse con un regalo adecuado. Solo después de regresar a la casa de Mountjoy y quemar el aceite de medianoche pudo subsanar la omisión. Según Erasmo, Henry ya tenía un buen dominio del latín y el francés (los idiomas de la erudición y la diplomacia) ya estos añadió más tarde cierta facilidad en español e italiano.

Sin embargo, Henry nunca abrazó completamente el humanismo de moda. Las influencias tradicionales eran tan fuertes como desafiar nuevas ideas y la parte favorita de su programa educativo era la historia, o lo que, entonces, pasó por historia. Esta fue una mezcla de romance cortesano, cuentos morales y propaganda. Europa estaba inmersa en una revolución en la tecnología de la información. La invención de la imprenta, con su potencial ilimitado para la instrucción de los niños en hogares acomodados, planteó la cuestión de qué textos se les debería presentar. Nadie dudaba de lo que señalaba el autor de El libro del caballero de la torre, publicado por Caxton en 1484: que el pasado era un depósito de historias mejoradas de las que los jóvenes podían aprender a comportarse en el presente. El atractivo inmediato de tales cuentos en el aula, sin embargo, fue el heroísmo al estilo de Boy’s Own Paper, alabado en relatos de derring-do caballeresco. El príncipe Enrique, como muchos hijos de ascendencia real y noble, se crió en las aventuras caballerescas registradas en las Crónicas de Jean Froissart, Le Morte Darthur de Sir Thomas Malory (publicado en inglés por Caxton en 1485) y una gran cantidad de otros libros y manuscritos de la mismo genero. Ellos glorificaron el combate personal y la guerra justa mientras ensalzaban el código de honor puro que supuestamente inspiró a todos los verdaderos caballeros. Tales historias recibieron una vívida ilustración de la vida real en las hazañas de armas realizadas en las "listas", los recintos donde se celebraban los torneos.

Aquí, el joven príncipe podía emocionarse con el glorioso espectáculo de los caballeros ataviados con heráldica golpeando sus lanzas en los escudos de los demás y disfrutar de la atmósfera creada por las multitudes que vitoreaban, el choque del acero y el relincho de los caballos. Henry anhelaba el día en que pudiera ocupar su lugar como héroe de la justa y el campo de batalla. Tan pronto como pudo manejar pequeñas espadas y arcos, comenzó a practicar para ese día.

El aprendizaje de las artes marciales se entremezcló completamente con la educación religiosa y moral del príncipe. El negocio de golpear cabezas, asediar castillos, incendiar pueblos y desperdiciar tierras de cultivo debía considerarse sumamente encomiable si la causa por la que luchaba el caballero era justa y santa, y mientras su propia vida fuera pura. En Le Morte Darthur, Lancelot rechaza la tentación sexual que mancillaría su honor caballeresco:

Me negaré a complacerme con los amantes: primero por temor a Dios, porque el caballero que es un aventurero no debe ser adúltero ni lujurioso, porque entonces no será ni feliz ni afortunado en las guerras. O será vencido por un caballero más simple que él mismo o, por desgracia y la maldición sobre él, matará a hombres mejores que él. Y así, quien recurra a los amantes será infeliz y todo sobre ellos será infeliz.

Las desastrosas consecuencias de la posterior relación de Lancelot con Ginebra, por supuesto, llevan a casa la moraleja.

Este código de honor fue suscrito por todos los jóvenes nobles y caballeros, pero para el hijo del rey de Inglaterra tenía mayor peso, porque ¿no descendía directamente del héroe-rey que presidía la Mesa Redonda? Cuando Enrique VII se aseguró de que su primogénito fuera traído al mundo en Winchester, la antigua capital de Inglaterra, y bautizado con el inusual nombre de 'Arthur', estos eran actos de propaganda y partes de un plan general para utilizar todos los medios posibles para dar a su régimen. credibilidad. Estaba vinculando deliberadamente su dinastía con la leyenda antigua y con la genealogía propuesta por Geoffrey de Monmouth, el cronista del siglo XII en su Historia Regum Britanniae. Geoffrey afirmó haber descubierto fuentes antiguas que vinculaban a los gobernantes de Inglaterra no solo con el Rey Arturo, sino también con los fugitivos de la caída de Troya. Los lectores de los siglos XV y XVI no tenían un sentido preciso de la cronología. La "Historia" era para ellos un tapiz radiante en el que reyes, santos, caballeros, magos y héroes tenían todos sus paneles interconectados.

Enrique VII estaba decidido a integrar a su familia en esta imponente estructura. Encargó al erudito italiano Polydore Vergil que escribiera una historia actualizada de Inglaterra que sería en gran medida una narrativa con un toque Tudor. El príncipe Enrique fue educado para verse a sí mismo como el heredero de esta mezcla de palabrería romántica, militarista, idealizada y politizada. Si tenía un héroe personal favorito era Enrique V, el rey guerrero cuyas espectaculares hazañas militares todavía se celebraban en leyendas y baladas. Sus campañas a través del Canal habían agregado Normandía y gran parte del norte de Francia a la posesión continental de Gascuña por parte de Inglaterra en el suroeste. A su muerte en 1422, aproximadamente un tercio de lo que ahora llamamos "Francia" debía lealtad a la corona inglesa y había sido nombrado heredero del trono francés. Eso fue antes de que la clase guerrera de Inglaterra se dividiera en facciones y comenzaran a girar sus espadas entre sí. En 1453 todo se había perdido excepto Calais. Desde entonces, el mapa político de la Europa más cercana había cambiado considerablemente. Louis XI (1423–83) united most of the independent duchies west of the Rhine by a combination of war and diplomacy and made of France a centralized monarchy. The union of Aragon and Castile and the expulsion of the Moors turned Spain into a formidable state. It was the relationship between these two nations which would determine the shape of European politics throughout the ensuing century and introduce the concept of the ‘balance of power’. England had ceased to be a major player. For Prince Henry, however, Anglo-French rivalry was a matter of unfinished business and the relegation of England to the status of second-rate nation, a mere spectator in the Habsburg-Valois struggle, was not to be borne. From an early age he dreamed of emulating the exploits of his illustrious ancestors.

As well as the time he spent at his lessons, Henry’s days were passed in the company of two groups of people, his female relatives and his socii studiorum. The latter were the sons of noble parents who shared the prince’s classroom and leisure hours. They were selected as suitable companions and as a means of tying their families more securely to the Tudor regime. It was with this peer group that Henry took exercise – in the tennis court, in the butts, in the hunting field and in the tiltyard. These recreational activities developed and expressed his macho self-image and his intensely competitive nature, which were also reinforced by the fact that he spent much of his time in a household of women in which he was the leading male figure. He was much in the company of his admiring mother and his sisters and always in the background was the dominatrix, Lady Margaret. Young Henry never really had a male role model. He saw little of his father and his elder brother. Arthur would always remain a shadowy figure. Francis Bacon, writing in the early seventeenth century, asserted that Henry VII’s heir was ‘strong and able’. The fact that, by his early teens, he had received various important offices and that plans for his marriage were pursued with vigour may suggest that there was no long-standing concern about his health. On the other hand, portraits of the prince show him with the rather pinched features of his father and other Lancastrians. His tutors reported that he was a studious boy and an apt learner. (We might be tempted to respond, ‘They would, wouldn’t they?’) There are no references to his appearing in the tiltyard or participating in athletic exercises apart from archery. This evidence – such as it is – may support the generally accepted opinion that Arthur was a sickly child. In any case, his contact with the brother who was five years his junior was limited. Arthur had his own household and, as the heir, received a distinctive upbringing.

It is interesting, and not entirely fanciful, to speculate about what would have happened to Henry if Arthur had lived. The two brothers were very different. One might almost see them as representing the Lancastrian and Yorkist elements of their ancestry. Henry grew up tall, athletic and passionate, like his grandfather, Edward IV. If we are at all correct in portraying Arthur as studious, reserved and pious, like his father or even the unfortunate Henry VI, there could hardly have been more difference between the siblings. Would the younger have settled happily as a loyal subject and supporter of the elder? The immediate family of Edward IV had destroyed itself by fraternal rivalry. George, Duke of Clarence, was impelled by ambition and hubris to those acts which obliged his brother to order his execution. Richard of Gloucester had come to grief as the result of grasping the crown rightfully belonging to Edward’s son. Might Henry have decided, like his great-uncles, that he was a more worthy candidate for kingship than his bookish brother? The forceful, impatient Henry known to history could only have found a subservient role irksome and, perhaps, intolerable.

Nor should we neglect the impact of Arthurian legend. The heir to the throne bore the magical name of the ‘once and future king’. Henry VII had sought to merge the mystical past with the promise of a radiant future, safe in the hands of a dynasty which would restore internal unity and make England once again great. Around 1500 there existed a very real sense of new beginnings. Many English men and women felt that somehow they were on the cusp of a golden age. They looked to the Tudors with expectancy. However, if the heroic mantle of ‘Arthur’ sat only loosely around the slender shoulders of a weak king might not his brother have felt that it was imperative for him to make good the deficiency? And even if Henry had given loyal support to the anointed king, what would have happened if that king had died young, bequeathing the crown to a minor? For the third time in a century England would have been faced with the disastrous reign of a child. It is difficult to imagine Henry standing passively by while noble factions once again threatened chaos. These possibilities are not just make-believe scenarios of no real interest to the historian. They certainly occurred to Henry VII and members of the political nation. As we saw at the beginning of this chapter, ‘what ifs’ were certainly questions for debate and speculation among the nation’s leaders. They were no less so for members of the royal family whose very survival was bound up with the smooth transfer of the crown to men of stature able to wear it with dignity and conviction. As for little Henry, he emerged from the chrysalis of infancy not knowing what his future might be. There was even a suggestion that he might be pushed into the church, presumably to prevent him appearing as a rival for the crown.

If Henry saw little of his father during his childhood years it was only partly because he was lodged in his own residences. The king was preoccupied in establishing his throne. From 1491, the year of his second son’s birth, to 1500 Henry VII was seldom able to feel secure. He was repeatedly involved in dealing with rebellions and rumours of rebellions. Yorkist plots, centred round the pretender Perkin Warbeck, obliged him to despatch or lead armies to Ireland, Scotland and France as well as make frequent sorties into various parts of his realm. These military activities were expensive and the tax burden imposed by the government was the heaviest England had had to bear for more than a century. In the spring of 1497 the men of Cornwall had had enough. They raised the standard of revolt and marched eastwards. The five-year-old Prince Henry was staying at his grandmother’s house at Coldharbour when news arrived that the Cornishmen had reached Farnham. Margaret hastily packed her daughter-in-law and her children into barges and had them rowed down to the Tower. There, in the safety of the ancient royal apartments, they waited anxiously for news while the king gathered his forces together to confront his disobedient subjects on Blackheath Common. Defeating the ill-disciplined revolt was not difficult but simultaneous risings in other places made this the most hazardous summer of the reign. Henry sent troops northwards while he led his main army into the heartland of the revolution. In Devon the last vestiges of rebellion were dispelled and Warbeck was taken prisoner. However, the troubles were not over. Eighteen months later, another pretender, Ralph Wilford, put himself forward and no sooner were his pretensions brought to an end than the leading Yorkist contender, Edmund de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, fled abroad to make a nuisance of himself in foreign courts. It is hardly surprising that the king and his younger son were able to spend little ‘quality time’ together. By the time that all immediate military threats were past it was 1502 and in that year Prince Henry’s life changed dramatically.


Enrique VIII

Henry VII's eldest son was Arthur, Prince of Wales. He married Catherine of Aragon, but died shortly thereafter, leaving the throne to fall to his younger brother Henry. History has not proved kind to the memory of Henry VIII (1509-47).

He is often remembered as the grossly stout, overbearing tyrant of his later years. In his youth, however, Henry was everything it was thought a king should be. A natural athlete, a gifted musician and composer, Henry was erudite, religious, and a true leader among the monarchs of his day.

Cardinal Wolsey
Henry had none of his father's drive for the grind of administration. He handed over that role to his advisor, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. This Henry was more concerned with cutting a fine figure than with balancing rows of figures like his father, and the result was predictable. Over the course of his reign, he managed to turn a bulging treasury into a gaping black-hole of debt.

Thomas Wolsey was the son of a Suffolk wool merchant. He became in turn Bishop of London, Archbishop of York, Cardinal and Lord Chancellor, and papal legate. He was even at one time considered seriously as a candidate for the papacy itself. Wolsey loved luxury and ostentation. He maintained a household of over 1000 people, and at the height of his power he was more king than Henry himself.

Religious Reformers
The whole of Europe was ablaze during Henry's time with the religious fervour of Reformation. Great reformers, religious and secular, called England home. Erasmus, scholar and monk, taught at Oxford, where he agitated for reform within the church. En su En alabanza de la locura he lambasted the clergy for "observing with punctilious scrupulosity a lot of silly ceremonies and paltry traditional rules." Sir Thomas More, later Chancellor, wrote utopía, a vision of an ideal society with no church at all to get in the way of spiritual understanding.

Henry himself, despite his later break with Rome, was not a religious reformer. He was fairly orthodox in his own beliefs, and he passed measures against Lutheranism and upheld many traditional Catholic rites from attack by reformers.

Marriage to Catherine
Henry received a special dispensation from the pope in order to marry his brother's widow, Catherine. The only child of that marriage was a daughter, Mary. Henry desperately wanted a male heir, and as time went on it became obvious that Catherine would have no more children. Henry began to cast around for a solution.

Anne Boleyn
For by now Henry had enough of his marriage, and was eyeing one of the Queen's ladies in waiting, Anne Boleyn. Anne refused Henry's advances without the benefit of a wedding, so Henry sent his chancellor, Cardinal Wolsey, to ask the pope for an annulment of his marriage to Catherine.

Unfortunately for the powerful Wolsey, he failed, and was deposed from office. Even the "gift" of his magnificent new palace at Hampton Court to Henry could not save Wolsey, who died shortly after his deposition, saving Henry the bother of a mock trial for treason. In Wolsey's place Thomas More was brought in to be Chancellor.

The Act of Supremacy
Henry's situation was now desperate, for Anne was pregnant, and at all costs, the child, which Henry was sure must be a son, had to be legitimate. Henry got Parliament to declare that his first marriage was void, and he secretly married Anne. Unfortunately for Henry, the child proved to be female once again, the future Elizabeth I. Over the next several years Henry's wrangle with the pope grew ever deeper, until in 1534 the Act of Supremacy was passed, making Henry, not the pope, head of the church in England. This was not at first a doctrinal split in any way, but a personal and political move.

Sir Thomas More opposed the divorce and was reluctantly executed by Henry. At the foot of the scaffold More is reported to have said, "I pray you, Master Lieutenant, see me safely up, and for my coming down, let me shift for myself".

How was Henry able to carry off the split from Rome? For one thing, the church had incurred a tremendous amount of bad feeling over the years. High church officials were seen as rich, indolent, and removed from the people they were supposed to be serving. The abbeys and monasteries were well off, and certainly subject to jealousy. Feelings against priests and churchmen ran high. The church had become too far removed from its spiritual roots and purpose.


Early Years of Henry Tudor - History

A Brief History of Henry Ford
and the Ford Motor Car Company

Born July 30, 1863 Henry Ford, grew up on the family farm in what is today Dearborn, Michigan.
Henry's childhood was that of a typical boy living in rural nineteenth century, going to school and doing farm chores. He had a dislike for farm work but an interest mechanical things which showed at an early age.

Henry Ford left home in 1879 for the nearby city of Detroit. He was sixteen at the time and going to work as an apprentice machinist. He worked at this for three years and then returned to Dearborn. Upon his return he operated and repaired steam engines, finding occasional work in a Detroit factory. He also over-hauled his father's farm implements in his spare time.
In 1888 he married Clara Bryant and supported himself and his wife by running a sawmill.

In 1891, Ford he went to work for the Edison Illuminating Company in Detroit as an engineer.
He showed a great interest in industrial pursuits. He was promoted to Chief Engineer in 1893.
This gave him enough time and money to devote attention to his personal experiments on internal combustion engines.
These experiments led to the completion of his own self-propelled vehicle, the Quadricycle in 1896.

Although Ford was not the first to build a self-propelled vehicle, he was, however, one of several automotive pioneers who helped this country become a nation of motorists.

In 1899 Ford quit his job at Edison and with the help of some investors, he started the Detroit Auto Company
which ended in failure.

Ford moved back to his father's home in 1901. He built a car on his own and with it beat Alexander Winton in an automobile race. This attracted more investors and enabled him to form the Henry Ford Co.
Ford withdrew from that company and it became Cadillac in 1902.
In 1903 he formed the Ford Motor Co. The Model A was produced in a rented plant on Mack Ave.
This arrangement last for one year and in 1903 he built a plant on Piquette Ave.
This building is still standing and being restored.
In the same year Ford of Canada was founded in Windsor Ontario.
By 1906 Ford had overtaken Olds, Buick and Cadillac combined to become No.1 auto maker in U.S.
In the same year Henry Ford became the company president and majority owner.
The famous model T was introduced in 1908 and as we all know the rest is HISTORY.

For a more detailed and complete history on the Ford please use the links below.

This page was last updated Jan 1, 2017

Wheels For Wishes is a vehicle donation program benefiting Make-A-Wish.
Donate an unwanted car, truck, boat, motorcycle, or other vehicle and
help to make a wish come true for a local child.

These pictures came for a number of sources including web
pages of the manufacturer, news groups and my own.
Since most of these pictures came from news groups there may be a
chance that your car is shown here.

I would like to invite any one that has a favourite Ford picture or a Web Page
that they would like added to this page to E mail me a copy.

1896 Ford
The Car That Started it All
Henry Ford's First Car
Click on this image for a larger view in a new window


Ford Quadricycle about 1902. This is possibly the 1st Automobile to grace the streets of Newmarket
This picture was submitted by Jim Parker and used with the permission of Newmarket Historical Society

Old Car and
Truck Ads
Kustom Cars of the 1950's


This image is by John Evans

The 1896 Ford shown above may be what started it all for
the Ford Motor Company but for many of us this
Ford was where it really began.


I think this is very interesting and not known by many

The following 1952 Aluminum Ford Engine article was posted on The Jolopy Jurnal by Ryan Cochran
That's the October, 1952 cover of Hot Rod Magazine. It features the FoMoCo produced aluminum block flathead. According to the article inside, ten of these blocks were produced in 1940 for experimental use in small airplanes. After being subjected to some serious dyno time, it was found that a thermal condition (aluminum expands and retracts faster than steel) caused the steel cylinder sleeves to buckle near the top of the cylinder bore, resulting in severe scuffing of the pistons.

Other pages in this set
1936 to 1940
1950 to 1958
1959 to 1969
1941 to 1949

Although this page includes a selection of Model T and Model A pictures
you will find a more complete listing on the pages below

Total hits on all the car pages

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Henry Carey by Sarah Bryson

On 4th March 1526, Mary Boleyn gave birth to a son she named Henry Carey. Mary Boleyn was a member of Henry VIII's court, was married to courtier William Carey and was also the older sister of Anne Boleyn, who would become Queen of England. I believe that Mary Boleyn was also the mistress of Henry VIII from around 1522 – 1525.

Over the centuries, there has always been a great deal of debate as to who Henry Carey's father was. Henry Carey was conceived during 1525, the year, I believe, that Mary's relationship with Henry VIII was coming to an end. It may be possible that during the last few times the King slept with Mary she conceived. It has also been suggested that Henry would not have wished to share Mary with her husband, keeping her to himself during the entire period of their relationship.

During his life there were also rumours that Henry Carey looked quite a lot like Henry VIII and that Henry VIII gave Mary's husband William Carey a series of grants and appointments around the time each child was born in an attempt to keep him happy. It has also been proposed that Queen Elizabeth was close Henry Carey this must have been because they were in fact half-brother and sister rather than just cousins. Queen Elizabeth knighted Henry Carey and made him Baron Hunsdon she also visited him on his death-bed offering him the Earldom of Wiltshire (once owned by his grandfather Thomas Boleyn).

On the other hand, there are just as many reasons proposed as to why Henry VIII was not Henry Carey's father. It is just as plausible that during the time Mary was the King's mistress she may have also been sleeping with her husband. Henry VIII never acknowledged Henry as his son, where he had acknowledged Henry Fitzroy, a son he bore with his previous mistress Bessie Blount.

It has also been proposed that Henry VIII may have had low fertility and thus there would be a low probability that Mary could become pregnant by the King. It has also been suggested that the grants given to William Carey could have simply been to keep him silent and happy about his wife sleeping with the King, as well as for his dedicated service to the King. Also the reason that Queen Elizabeth showed great favour to Henry Carey was simply because they were cousins.

Whatever the truth regarding Henry Carey’s biological father, it was William Carey, Mary's husband, that acknowledged baby Henry as his son and heir. Henry Carey would grow up to become a prominent and impressive member at court.

On the 21st May 1545 Henry obtained a licence to marry Anne Morgan daughter of Sir Thomas Morgan. The couple would go on to have twelve children together - nine sons and three daughters.

During his early years Henry Carey became a diplomat, ambassador and a member of parliament. In 1546, during the reign of Henry VIII, Carey accompanied John Dudley, Viscount Lisle on an embassy mission to France. In the first year of Edward VI's reign Carey was MP for the borough of Buckingham and during the reign of Mary I he was a carver of the privy chamber. In 1557 Carey was held in the Fleet prison for debts of £507 which had occurred in 1551 but was soon released on bond on the 19th May.

When Elizabeth I came to the throne, Henry was knighted and on 13th January 1559 he was created Baron Hunsdon and granted substantial lands in Kent, Hertfordshire and Essex which provided a yearly income of £4000, a huge sum at the time. On 31st October 1560 Henry was appointed as Master of the Queen's hawks and then on 18th Mary 1561 he was created a Knight of the Garter, the highest order of chivalry in England. In 1564 Carey was granted the distinct honour of leading a mission to France where he presented the Order of the Garter to the French King Charles IX, on behalf of Elizabeth I. He also witnessed the signing of the treaty of Troyes between England and France.
On the 25th of August 1568 Carey was appointed Governor of Berwick, a position which saw him protecting the north of England from Scottish invaders and any possible rebellions. One such rebellion took place on the 20th January 1570. Henry Carey and a group of around 1500 soldiers faced English rebel, Leonard Dacre, who was part of an uprising in the North of England. Carey and his men, although outnumbered, stood strong and managed to scatter the rebel army which quickly fled north along with Dacre. In response to his victory Elizabeth I wrote to her cousin declaring that: ‘I doubt much, my Harry, whether that the victory was given me more joyed me or that you were by God appointed the instrument of my glory’. For the country's good the first suffices, but ‘for my heart's contentment the second more pleased me’.

On 23 October 1571 Carey was appointed Warden of the East Marshes which afforded him even greater responsibilities in protecting the north of England. On the 16th of November 1577 Henry received the high distinction of being appointed as a member of the Privy Council. This provided him greater access not only to the Queen but to the administration of England's policies. Carey focused the remainder of his years upon his work in the Privy Council, although there were four occasions between 1578 and 1588 that he was recalled north to protect the Northern boarders and to negotiate with the Scots. In fact Henry Carey was so influential in Scottish matters that he was seen as the leading member on the Privy Council in Scottish matters and the Scottish King, James VI wrote personally to Carey on several occasions.

During 1583, Elizabeth I re-appointed Henry as captain of the Gentlemen Pensioners and in July 1585 he was appointed as Lord Chamberlain of the household as well as continuing his privy councillor duties. In 1589 Carey was appointed as Chief Justice in Eyre South of Trent and on the 2nd of March 1592 he was appointed High Steward of Oxford for the remainder of his life. This appointment added to his other stewardships of Doncaster and Ipswich which had been granted to him in 1590.

Henry was active in political life until his death on 23rd July 1596 at Somerset House. Just as his sister Catherine, Henry Carey was buried at Westminster Abbey, the expenses of this paid by his cousin Elizabeth I. It is rumoured that on his death-bed Elizabeth I offered Henry the Earldom of Wiltshire, a title held by his grandfather Thomas Boleyn. However Henry refused the title stating that if Elizabeth did not think him worthy of the title while he was alive he would not accept it now that he was dying.

Henry Carey was a hardworking, dedicated servant and courtier of his cousin and Queen, Elizabeth I. He proved himself both on the battle field and in political matters. Upon his death Carey was succeeded by his son George Carey who became 2nd Baron Hunsdon.


Henry VII Tudor as King Of England

‘His [Henry VII] body was slender but well built and strong his height above the average. His appearance was remarkably attractive and his face was cheerful especially when speaking his eyes were small and blue his teeth few, poor and blackish his hair was thin and grey his complexion pale’.
Polydore Vergil, from the Anglica Historia

Many historians have long argued that Bosworth Field marked the end of medieval England, and the beginning of more modern government. This assumes at least some drastic changes occurred during the 24 years Henry ruled England. However, no such changes occurred. Henry maintained the government of his predecessors he simply had a more efficient administration.
This should detract from his formidable accomplishments. Despite his very questionable claim to the throne, Henry proved himself to be an able and enthusiastic king. He devoted himself to the minutiae of government, personally initialing household account books. He was quite miserly, which greatly benefited his spendthrift son Henry VIII, but this was understandable – the first Tudor king knew financial success would be the life or death of his new dynasty. Like all monarchs, he needed money – and often badly. But he needed parliament’s permission to raise taxes or create new ones. Yet Henry knew that parliament would be opposed to giving a new – and unpopular king – more sources of revenue, particularly since England’s economy was not prosperous. And so Henry only called parliament seven times during his reign. Instead of creating new methods to raise money, he cannily exploited the existing sources. Every loophole that existed was stretched wide – Henry sought every penny he could from every source of revenue. And he protected the money fanatically. Few monarchs lived so frugally, and as Francis Bacon noted, ‘towards his queen [Elizabeth of York] he was nothing uxorious, nor scarce indulgent….’
For Henry VII, money equaled security. And so rights of Wardship, Marriage, Promotions, and Death, forced loans and benvolences, and trade dues were all tools to gain financial security.

Upon becoming king, Henry’s immediate problem was the same as his Yorkist predecessors – the legitimacy of his claim to the throne. Bosworth Field had not ended the struggle for England’s crown, and Henry faced considerable unrest throughout the early years of his reign. The Northerners (who never lost their distrust of the Tudors) had supported Richard III, and did not welcome a Welsh king. And Yorkist support continued in Ireland (where Lambert Simnel was crowned Edward VI 1487), and in Europe (where Edward IV and Richard III’s sister Margaret lived on as the influential duchess of Burgundy.) Also, because Henry’s claim to the throne was so weak, he inevitably had to work harder to create the impression of royal authority. By all accounts, he lacked the majesty, or charisma, of his son Henry VIII and granddaughter Elizabeth I. But charisma was perhaps a negligible quality during those early years more important were hard work, dedication, and discipline. And Henry possessed those qualities in abundance.

[The story of the impostors Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck is told at my Plantagenet England site. There is a link back to the Henry VII page from there.]

First, Henry benefited directly from the Wars of the Roses – heirs to many of the old noble families were killed during the battles. Henry simply appropriated their lands and revenue. Those that had supported Richard III (those that survived, that is) were attainted and their estates confiscated. He also created a council ‘Learned in the Law’ in 1495 to deal with enforcement of already-existing taxes, particularly those owed by the nobility. Henry also forbid nobles to retain their own armies. A small number of attendants was acceptable, but Henry did not want any lord to have more power than the king. Edward IV had attempted the same maneuver, with less success. Henry was aided by a simple fact – as king, he owned most of the gunpowder in the country. Therefore, he simply blew up the castles and keeps of recalcitrant barons. It was quite an effective policy, though Henry did not curb the power and influence of all nobles. But it is worth noting that the English nobility, already in decline during the Wars of the Roses, fell from influence rapidly under the Tudors – under Elizabeth I, for instance, England had just one duke (and he was executed for treason.)

Henry did continue the Yorkist tradition of promoting government officers from the middle class (primarily clerics and lawyers.) But he did not create the middle class government that many historians propose nobles still retained the most powerful positions. Henry kept many of Edward IV and Richard III’s councilors, and these were either from the aristocracy, or related through marriage. But it should be noted that the middle class was growing in power and influence, and carefully making its way through the corridors of power.

Henry also revived the powers of the Justices of the Peace, first introduced by Henry II. They administered the king’s justice throughout England, and were supposedly free of local prejudices. His Yorkist predecessors had appointed a Council of the North and thus allowed the great border families of Neville, Dacre, Scrope, and Percy to rule as virtually independent princes with their own armies. This was necessary because the Scottish border was notoriously difficult to maintain raids from the north were all too common, and the Yorkists had needed the Northern lords to protect English interests. When Edward IV was king, Richard had been ‘Lord of the North’, having inherited the vast Neville estates through his wife. Henry was not so inclined – he did not want the Northern families to be too powerful after all, they could turn that power against their king. But he also knew the North needed a strong leader, a servant of the crown. And so he released the last Percy heir, the earl of Northumberland, from the Tower of London and appointed him Lord Warden of the East and Middle Marches. But Henry carefully trimmed Percy’s powers, and only allowed the council to meet sporadically. He successfully subdued it into becoming a mere extension of his own London-based authority.

Henry also attempted to quell the Scottish problem, and undercut the Auld Alliance (the alliance between France and Scotland), by marrying his eldest daughter Margaret to the king of Scots in 1503. He planned to marry his youngest daughter, Mary, to Charles, the prince of Castile. His eldest son and heir apparent, Prince Arthur, was wed to the youngest daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, the powerful ‘Catholic Kings’ of Spain. With these marriage alliances, Henry hoped to protect his domestic interests he did not want to engage in costly foreign wars since the establishment of his own dynasty was more important, but he needed foreign allies. Marriage was less costly than war, and – Henry hoped – more effective. The matches were impressive, particularly the match with Spain since it meant that the most powerful European monarchs recognized his shaky claim to the throne.

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Enrique VIII 1491–1547 King of England

The reign of Henry VIII marked the true beginning of the Renaissance in England. During his younger years, Henry appeared to be the ideal Renaissance monarch—handsome and dashing, fond of sports and pageantry, well educated, and a supporter of the arts and learning. However, less attractive features appeared during the later years of his reign, when he faced increasing troubles in his married life and economic and social strains within his kingdom.

Early Rule. The second ruler of the Tudor dynasty, Henry was the younger son of Henry VII. His brother Arthur, the heir to the throne, died in 1502, a year after marrying the Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon. Henry took the throne upon his father's death in 1509 and married his brother's widow in hopes of continuing friendly relations with Spain.

Henry and Catherine remained happily married for 18 years. During this time, Henry was devoted to the Roman Catholic Church and the papacy*. He joined the pope's Holy League, an alliance aimed at preventing France from gaining territory in Italy, and he supported the papacy against the Protestant ideas of Martin Luther. The pope gave Henry the title "Defender of the Faith" in thanks for his support.

By 1527, however, Henry had become concerned about the lack of a male heir. Catherine's childbearing days were over, and their only surviving child was a daughter named Mary. The king feared that the English would not accept a female ruler. Determined to continue the Tudor dynasty, he tried to end his marriage to Catherine. He planned to take Anne Boleyn, one of Catherine's attendants, as his second wife.

The king and his chief minister Thomas Wolsey asked the pope to grant Henry an annulment* and permission to remarry. Normally, such a request would not have posed a problem. However, Catherine opposed the divorce, as did her nephew Charles V, the king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor*. The pope denied the divorce because he needed Charles's help in various political matters. In response, Henry summoned the so-called Reformation Parliament in 1529 and began taking steps to undermine the power of the Catholic Church in England.

The English Reformation. In 1533 Thomas Cromwell, Henry's new chief minister, proposed that England should break its ties with Rome. This would allow the archbishop of Canterbury, head of the English church, to grant the divorce. Thomas Cranmer, the new archbishop, supported the plan. Henry married Anne Boleyn in January, and a few months later Parliament passed a law denying the papacy any authority in England. Cranmer then granted Henry his divorce and legalized his marriage to Anne. In September, Anne give birth to Henry's second daughter, Elizabeth.

Parliament continued to reshape the English church. It passed laws that named Henry VIII as Supreme Head of the Church, cut off all payments to the papacy, regulated church doctrine, and closed all the Catholic monasteries in England. Although many English people were unhappy about these actions, others welcomed the reform of a church they viewed as corrupt.

In 1536 Henry came to believe that Anne Boleyn had been unfaithful. She was charged with adultery and beheaded. Soon afterward, Henry took his third wife, Jane Seymour, who provided the king with his long-awaited son, Prince Edward. Jane died from complications of childbirth. Henry married three more times, but none of these wives bore him any children.

Troubles both at home and abroad marred the later years of Henry's reign. Following the break with Rome, Henry and his advisers feared that Catholic powers in Europe would wage war on England. The government spent vast sums of money on building up the nation's military defenses. In addition, after about 1536 the members of Henry's government were divided over the issues of further reforms in the church and in social policy. The country also faced economic and social strains. One major source of tension was the growing practice of enclosure, which involved converting open fields into pasture for sheep. This movement pushed many rural laborers from their homes and led to social unrest.

Henry and the Renaissance. Renaissance ideas had begun to trickle into England during the reign of Henry VII. Under Henry VIII, these ideas spread more rapidly and widely. Sir Thomas More, Henry's lord chancellor, led a group of humanists* at the court who promoted Renaissance learning. One of More's followers, Sir Thomas Elyot, wrote a treatise* that examined Renaissance ideas on political thought and education. Elyot also helped revive ancient medical teachings and produced the first English dictionary of classical* Latin. In addition, More's circle included the German artist Hans Holbein the Younger, who painted several portraits of the king and some of his wives.

After Henry's break with Rome, religious debates and divisions drew public attention away from humanist studies. But Renaissance ideas had taken hold, and they grew in popularity and importance during the reign of Henry's daughter Elizabeth I and her successor, James I.

office and authority of the pope

formal declaration that a marriage is legally invalid

ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, a political body in central Europe composed of several states that existed until 1806

Renaissance expert in the humanities (the languages, literature, history, and speech and writing techniques of ancient Greece and Rome)


Resolute Catherine

Miniature of Catherine of Aragon by Lucas Horenbout c. 1525.

On June 22, 1527, Henry told Catherine that their marriage was over.

Catherine was stunned and wounded, but determined. She made it clear that she would not agree to a divorce. She was convinced that there had been no impediment -- lawful, moral or religious -- to their marriage, and that she must continue in her role as Henry's wife and queen.

Although Henry continued to show Catherine respect, he forged ahead with his plans to obtain an annulment, not realizing that Clement VII would never grant him one. During the months of negotiations that followed, Catherine remained at court, enjoying the support of the people, but growing isolated from the courtiers as they abandoned her in favor of Anne Boleyn.

In Autumn of 1528, the pope ordered that the matter be handled in a trial in England, and appointed Cardinal Campeggio and Thomas Wolsey to conduct it. Campeggio met with Catherine and tried to persuade her to give up her crown and enter a convent, but the queen held to her rights. She lodged an appeal to Rome against the authority of the court the papal legates planned to hold.

Wolsey and Henry believed Campeggio had irrevocable papal authority, but in fact the Italian cardinal had been instructed to delay matters. And delay them he did. The Legatine Court did not open until May 31, 1529. When Catherine appeared before the tribunal on June 18, she stated that she did not recognize its authority. When she returned three days later, she threw herself at her husband's feet and begged for his compassion, swearing that she'd been a maid when they'd wed and had always been a loyal wife.

Henry responded kindly, but Catherine's plea failed to deter him from his course. She in turn persisted in appealing to Rome, and refused to return to the court. In her absence, she was judged contumacious, and it looked like Henry would soon receive a decision in his favor. Instead, Campeggio found an excuse for further delay and in August, Henry was ordered to appear before the papal curia in Rome.

Furious, Henry at last understood he would not get what he wanted from the pope, and he began to look for other ways to resolve his dilemma. Circumstances may have seemed cast in Catherine's favor, but Henry had decided otherwise, and it was only a matter of time before her world would spin out of her control.


Ver el vídeo: The First State Bed of Henry VII u0026 Elizabeth of York (Junio 2022).


Comentarios:

  1. Merg

    Pido disculpas, pero en mi opinión admites el error. Ingrese lo discutiremos. Escríbeme en PM.

  2. Mekora

    Mmm... Nada en absoluto.

  3. Rawiella

    Acabas de visitar una idea brillante

  4. Zulukinos

    Estos son para!

  5. Tokasa

    Pido disculpas por estar interrumpiéndolo.

  6. Cerdic

    ¡Qué rara suerte! ¡Que felicidad!

  7. Mckale

    Es notable, muy buena información.



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